Winter 2015/16 –versus-
7th Post - 30 Dec. 2015
Huge Difference – December 1939
& December 2015 –
A. Science not able or unwilling to notice it?
Earth Quake – 27. December 1939
Posted: 30 December 2015 (ocl_12-13)
The difference of two
El Niņo towards the end of the year in 1939 and 2015 is
incredible huge. This year science claims that December is well on track to become
the warmest on record. The NYT speaks of “Tropical
about the warmest December since records began in 1910, and few days before New
Year’s Eve a big Icelandic storms “will draw northward an incredible
surge of warmth pushing temperatures at the North Pole over 50 degrees
above normal. Right Fig 1-2
Anomaly Forecast 1st week 2016
Post, 28Dec.) even though re-analysis dataset suggests it is closer to -20
degrees (-29 Celsius).
Overview: El Niņo and SST (Fig. 3-6)
What all this
observation do not mention, 1938/39 was the warmest period since about 1850,
1939 is, as 2015, regarded as a year with a strong El Niņo, but the air temperatures across the Northern Hemisphere
are very different in December. Particularly Europe was affected, which is the
main aspect of the various posts since October 2015. In the previous post (23.Dec.)
we mentioned the break-down of weather. Minus 34°C on Christmas
But the arrival of
winter was also felt in more southern regions:
__December 28, 1939; Snow storms sweep Denmark (Frankfurter Zeitung, December
29, 1939); _December 29; Ice closes Danube to German supplies; Rail traffic expected to
be hampered by snow (NYT, Dec. 30);
__December 29; From Agram in Yugoslavia temperature of minus 32°C is reported. (Neue Zurcher Zeitung, Dec. 31);
__December 30; Milan –10°C. during Saturday night. Genoa and Triest heavy snow
storms (Neue Zurcher Zeitung, Dec. 31, 1939).
__December 30; “An unprecedented and severe snow storm in Naples region today
indirectly caused a train wreck in…”. “ Rome ’s heaviest snowfall in recorded
history - six inches - …” (NYT, December 31, 1939, and the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Jan. 2, 1940), but snow
fall lasted for only eight hours. The snow melted away in a few hours on
January 1st 1940;
30/31 December 1939/2015 (Fig 6-9)
__December 30; Rome covered by 25-30 cm snow; Venice minus 5°C; Finland’s
Arctic Front minus 48°C; record cold in Sweden and Norway with minus 40°C;
severe cold in Yugoslavia with minus 23°C (Frankfurter Zeitung);
__December 31; cold wave in Bulgaria ;, the lowest values at Rustschuk on the
Danube River with minus 20°C. Banja Luka/Westbosnia: minus 27°C; in Slovenian
cities minus 26°C.
__ Dec. 31st 1940; The Atlantic Island Madeira reports a violent storm on
Sunday (December 31) with heavy flooding. (Neue Zurcher Zeitung,
January 2 1940). Source:
The winter arrived in
Europe well before a devastating earth quake struck Turkey in late December,
which is either little investigated in correlation with El Niņo and early winter condition.
Earth Quake – 27. December 1939
(Extract from Book-Chapter
“Once more a great
disaster has visited a country, caused this time not by man’s inhumanity to
man, but by a gigantic force of nature.” - “It is not likely that the new
upheavals will teach the geologist anything new. They are evidence that nature
has not yet finished with the earth.” - “What we urgently need is some method
of predicting quakes and warning a threatened population.” (Extracts from the
NYT Commentary on 29 December 1939).
On Wednesday 27th December 1939 (after foreshock on 26th
23:57:16h G.C.T), a devastating earthquake in the north-easterly highlands of
Anatolia shook the whole of Turkey, at 1:57:35 hours a.m. local time. There had
been foreshocks on 21st November 1939 near Terzhan/Turkey, and tremors were
reported in England, San Jose, Manila, etc. (NYT, 22 December 1939). A quake
with a force of 8 recorded on the Richter scale shock the Anatolia earth taking
the life of about 35,000, injuring 100,000 and making several hundred thousand
homeless. 90 villages and 15 cities over an area of 30,000 square kilometres
were completely destroyed. The earthquake produced a tsunami wave of up to 3-4
metres, respectively of a one meter high wave crossing the eastern part of the
Black Sea from the South to the North, as recorded in several Russian stations.
What followed after the earthquakes were bitter cold, storms, heavy rains,
floods and snow. It became a very hard period for the Turkish people. Most of
their powerful neighbours were at war, while their government tried to manage
the matter on its own. This massive earthquake occurred during the transition
from autumn weather to winter. What were the weather conditions when the event
happened? What was the contribution of this event to the extreme war winter
1939/40 in Europe? The arctic winter of 1939/40 was already well on its way in
December. Extracts from: NYT, 28.Dec.39; NYT, 29.Dec.39; NYT, 31.Dec.39;
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Taking into account events listed below, it is quite
obvious that the quake on 27th December 1939 had a devastating meteorological
effect for Turkey and the region, extending temporarily up to Italy. On the
other hand, there is hardly any indication that the quake and the tsunami that
were followed by a substantial low pressure in the Black Sea region had any
influence on the Northern and Central European weather processing conditions.
This part was clearly influenced by other forces that had already been
prevalent when the Turkish quake occurred. But it should be noted that, at a
very early time of the winter season plenty of cold air could travel easily
from Asia to the south-western flank of Europe, which presumably contributed to
the cold spell in the Danube river countries on 22nd December, although the
cyclone (970mb) over the Gulf of Bothnia/ North Finland too could have assisted
The tsunami of
27th December may have contributed, though in a small measure, to the wider
regional conditions leading to the severe war winter of 1939/40. The freezing
of the sea near Odessa in early January is within the average. Certain extreme
situations (e.g. stormy conditions in late February) can be attributed to the
unusual weather conditions in Central and Northern Europe during January and
Last days in 1939 – A
(which far from complete)
28 December 1939;
6,000 die in Turkey as quakes are felt around the world. Successive aftershocks
take heavy toll of life and property in Anatolia regions. Los Angeles Area
shaken. Central America is affected – London seismograph broken due to severity
of tremors. (NYT, 28 December 1939). “Three additional tremors, subzero weather
(minus 17°C) and blizzard winds, ..” - “Temperatures 22 degrees below zero
(minus 30°C) and strong winds from the Black Sea claimed many victims…” (NYT,
29 December 1939).
1939; Tremors registered in California (116 miles south of Berkeley) South
Africa, Italy. (NYT 29 December 1939).
1939; In New York record cold of 11.9° F; Four inches of snow reported in parts
of State; Storms throughout the East. (NYT, 28 December 1939).
1939; Pope to visit the Italian King Victor Emmanuel today, for the first time
since 1870, (NYT, 28 December 1939), see next: “28 December 1939”.
1939; Rome. “A cold dreary rain did nothing to dim the brilliance of the
ceremony that began shortly before 10 o’clock.” - “ ….to see the Pope at all in
such a weather.” (NYT, 29 December 1939).
1939; “10,000 soldiers with shovels, had cut through mountainous drifts of
snow” - “The continued cold – as low as 22 degrees below zero Fahrenheit –
seemed to be the greatest threat.” (NYT, 30 December 1939).
29 December 1939;
Temperatures in Turkey temporarily minus 30°C. Casualties in the Erzingan’s
region about 42,000. (Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 29 December 1939).
1939; Ice closes Danube to German supplies; Rail traffic expected to be
hampered by snow (NYT, 30 December 1939) “Cold winds have been blowing recently
westwards from Russia, and the constantly low temperature in the river valley
indicates a general freeze will set in soon.” (NYT, ditto).
1939; From Agram in Yugoslavia minus temperatures of 32°C are reported. (Neue
Zürcher Zeitung, 31 December 1939).
1939; Turkey: New quakes add to toll in Turkey. Many more villages reported
destroyed – Relief efforts hampered. Floods in West Anatolia. Erzingan’s
casualties in quake at 42,000 – Allied and other Governments speed aid. (NYT,
31 December 1939).
1939; “In Naples region today an unprecedented severe snow storm…”. Rome’s
heaviest snowfall in recorded history - six inches - made the Romans feel as
New Yorkers did in the 1888 blizzard. There had been nothing closer to this
since the snowfall for three days from December 16 to 18, 1846”. (NYT, 31
December 1939) .
1939; Cold wave over the Riviera. Genoa rapid fall of temperature, extensive
snowstorm. Trieste reports heavy winter storms. Malians had –10°C. (Neue Zurcher
Zeitung, 31 December 1939).
Posts since October 2015 on:
2015/16 –versus- Winter 1939/40
(20. Oct): Has El Niņo a
role on sub-cold winters in Europe? A continuous comparison
Post 1 (21.Oct): Stefan Brönnimann claims: Extreme
winter 1940-1942 due to El Niņo! -19-
Post 2 (22.Oct): USA deprived of rain - October to December 1939 -18-
Post Special (24.Oct): Hurricane PATRICIA; 'Strongest ever' storm – End
of October 2015 -18a-
Post 3 (19.Nov): El Niņo Autumn 1939 vs. 2015 -17-
Post 4 (01.Dec): Jet Stream blocked in late 1939 –
By naval war not El Niņo –-16-
Post 5 (16.Dec): Siberian freeze arrive in Europe - December 1939
Post 6 (22.Dec): Merry Christmas and Peace upon Meteorology,……… -14-
Post 7 (30.Dec): Huge Difference – December 1939 & December 2015 – -13-
Post 8 (Special): Northern
Europe’s Mild Winters. [Essay, about pages 12) -12-
Post 9 (04.Jan): On….the
Met- Office asked: What’s been happening to our weather? -11-
Post 10 (09.Jan): Polish and German climate science on
winter 1939/40.a shame! -10-
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Kindly look in again, and if you have suggestions email to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Back to 1st Post
About winter 1939/40 further reading:
of Meteorology! Unable to Prevent Climate Change and World Wars?
Oceans Make Climate!”
Back to top→→→
14. June 2013: Met Office
bad weather, titles THE GUARDIAN – 13. June 2013 (ocl-7-9)
April 2013: Met-Off
loose talk on cold March 2013?
North and Baltic Sea should not be ignored! (ocl_9-8)
April 2013: 'Urgent'
need to see if Arctic affects UK extreme cold? No! MetOffice should
investigate the impact of human activities in the North- and Baltic
Sea ! (co_9-4)
03 April 2013: Did
the cold March 2013 came from Siberia ? A not well founded claim!
29 March 2013: Cold
March 2013 in company with March 1942 & 1917 (co 10-2)
27. March 2013: Strong
Start – Strong Ending; Winter 2012/13. About the Role of North-
and Baltic Sea (2007seatraining 1310)
26. March 2013; March
2013 snow in the UK and the North Sea . Did human activities
contributed? (ocl 10_2)
21 March 2013; Cold
March 2013 in UK and North Europe science should be able to explain!
07 March 2013: Winter
2012/13 for Northern Europe is over! The Baltic and North Sea will
prevent a surprise in March! (ocl-10_4)
19. January 2013: Northern
Europe's bulwark against Asian cold from 19-31. (oc_12-8)
14. January 2013: North-
and Baltic Sea influence Europe ’s winter 2012/2013 until now.
December 2012 (+ 21 & 26 Dec) : Are
we heading to severe Baltic Sea ice conditions by 30th December
on arctic warming causes cold winters
Tang et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8
Cold winter extremes in northern continents linked to Arctic sea ice
results suggest that the winter atmospheric circulation at high
northern latitudes associated with Arctic sea ice loss, especially
in the winter, favours the occurrence of cold winter extremes at
middle latitudes of the northern continents.”
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